System studies
Arc Flash Study, Calculations and Analysis
Protection studies

System study 3An electrical distribution system that functions optimally is essential for a reliable power supply. Every new load, expansion, upgrade and configuration change in your network can produce conditions for which your network was not originally designed. If there are faults in the protection system, any relatively small errors such as overloads, short circuits or earth faults can lead to significant financial damage as a result of uncontrolled interruptions to the voltage in your company.

The network studies conducted by eco solutions show where critical points occur in your network. We provide you with information so that the right decisions can be made when planning upgrades or expansions of your electrical system. This results in lower operational costs, greater availability and minimum risk of faults.

system study load flowWe offer extensive techno commercial study, evaluation and recommendations that comprise various power system analysis, depending on the specific requirements of our clients. Our offer covers long and short term energy forecast, long and short term system expansion plans and measures, commercial evaluation of the various expansion and operational plans, System Interconnection studies etc.

As a group of power system engineers we have performed widest possible range of power system studies. The studies cover planning, engineering, economic aspects of power system, design, operation, control and protection and uses appropriate static, dynamic or transient study models for power systems.

  system study_transient study system study_transient study2    We perform electrical system studies which are pre-requisites for any new system, any renovation, modernization and expansion plans, and also for existing systems which may fulfil the objectives of system planning, design, protection and control, developing system operation strategies, commercial and technical evaluation and feasibility studies.

system study_transient study3   system studyWe develop power flow and dynamic stability simulation models, based on unique plant systems that assess the ability of plants to maintain operation during events such as large motor starting, load tripping and generator tripping and to propose control strategies, including turbine governor control setting and load shedding schemes.



system study load flowOur services in this sector includes the following.


  • Power Flow Studies.
  • Motor starting studies
  • Short Circuit Studies
  • Contingency Studies.
  • Reactive Power Optimization.
  • Capacitor Locations and Sizing.
  • Transient Stability Analysis.
  • Insulation co-ordination.
  • Advanced grounding calculation (multilayer modelling )
  • Long term energy and demand forecast
  • Lightning protection design
  • Protection Co-ordination Studies
  • Arc Flash Study and Analysis

We have professional experience with leading power system analysis software tools like ETAP, Design base Paladin, DigSILENT PowerFactory, other commercial applications, and many specialized proprietary software tools.

Arc flash is now accepted as a major hazard within industry with many serious incidents occurring worldwide as a direct affect.

Eco solutions have a team of experts in arc flash analysis. We have developed a proven process for arc flash analysis, mitigation and ensuring clients comply with NFPA70E (National Fire Protection Association – Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace) in the protection against a known hazard.

Arc flashOur analysis is performed in accordance with IEEE 1584 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Guide for Performing Arc-Flash Hazard Calculations) and includes the use of industry proven software with our expert evaluation to model and undertake calculations in both AC and DC applications.

Eco solutions team is having more than 20 years of experience in system study and arc flash analysis. The Team has done arc flash studies including mitigations with switchgear modifications for more than   100 switchgears ranging from 33kV to 415V. We carry out Arc flash studies for the following sectors:

  • Supply Authority Liaison
  • Site Survey
  • Data Gathering
  • Data Collation and Verification

  • Develop Systems Computer Model
  • Determine Prospective Fault Current Calculations
  • Arc Flash Calculations to comply with IEEE1584 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations)
  • Determine Electrical Protection Characteristics
  • Electrical Protection Co-ordination
  • NFPA 70E (National Fire Protection Association - Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace)
Arc flash

Arc flash
  • Reduction in Prospective Fault Currents
  • Reduction in Fault Clearance Times
  • Arc Detection and Suppression
  • Arc Venting
  • Protection Adjustment
  • ARC diversion
  • Remote Switching

  • Training
  • Procedural Update
  • Labeling
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

  • Arc Flash Hazard Likelihood Assessment
  • Switchgear Risk Assessment
  • Procedure Assessment
  • Competence Assessment

We carry out protection engineering based on IEC, IEEE standard for transmission networks, generation plants connected to grids, large oil and gas facilities, small industrial users and distribution companies. Protection systems can vary from simple to extremely complex. Modern numerical relays can be part of an overall protection and control system, acting as remote terminal units and control points as well as protection in both large substations and the wider network.

We have extensive experience in all aspects of protection for:

  • Cables
  • Industrial generation.
  • Industrial networks.
  • Main generation plant.
  • Substations up to 400kV.
  • Transmission lines.
  • Utility distribution systems.

Our protection engineers are skilled in:

  • Application engineering/relay setting calculations (includes Pilot wire differential, Line distance, transformer differential, and High impedance differential protections)
  • Associated control functions, including auto switching schemes, transformer automatic AVC schemes and interlocking systems.
  • Fault analysis.
  • Multifunction relay configuration.
  • Protection philosophy definition and policy creation.
  • Protection upgrading/refurbishment in existing substations.
  • Relay co-ordination.
  • Relay scheme design/equipment technical specification.
  • Substations up to 400kV.
  • System protection design.

Protection co-ordination

Protection-co-ordination1The goal of a Protective Device Coordination Study is to achieve an optimum balance between equipment protection and selective isolation that is consistent with the operating requirements of the overall power system. In addition, the interrupting ratings of all protective equipment, conductors, and switches are checked for adequacy in coordination studies. Inadequate equipment ratings can result in either extensive damage to the equipment during faults and system operation and may introduce hazards to plant operating personnel.

Most electrical power distribution systems are not planned with protective device coordination in mind. A distribution system can be designed for minimum losses and minimum upfront investment and yet fail in the proper coordination of the protective devices. As a result, equipment failures within the system can easily result in the shutdown of the entire facility. There have been many instances where the failure of a single motor or branch circuit within a building has resulted in the shutdown of most of the facility.


A protection co-ordination study:

  • Can either be based on electrical network data provided by the client or involve a site visit to collect data from existing devices
  • Involves calculation of optimum protection device settings
  • Is carried out using a power systems analysis software

 Protection co-ordination services will be offered for following scopes

  • Validation of protection for existing electrical network .
  • Any green field project.
  • Any Brownfield project.
  • Expansion in the electrical network.
  • Protection system modernisation and upgrade.
  • Protection integration in substation automation system.

On completion of the protection co-ordination study you will receive a report containing:

  • A single line drawing showing the electrical network model.
  • A summary of the relevant data on which the study is based.
  • Commentary on how settings were determined and any issues arising.
  • Protection device setting tables.
  • Protection device time-current characteristics.
  • Recommended improvement actions.

Protection upgrade

Without regular upgrading, the protection installation will show flat performance, be subject to operational risks owing to ageing and have outdated functionalities. Our Services enable you to anticipate and plan to prevent obsolescence, maintain system availability, improve performance and functionalities and preserve your investment with a long-term vision.

Global demand for electricity will continue to rise steeply, so that new interconnections, bus bar increases, additional feeders or transformers in substations will all require additional, integrated protection and control systems resizing. Also with the increasing demand for integrated set of control, supervision and management functions for power generation, distribution and supply in industrial plants. In addition to the traditional functions of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) in power management system, substation automation system and Smart grid applications, the protection upgrade plays an important role like, consolidation of multiple functions into a single numerical microprocessor-based protective relaying device reduces wiring, costs, and complexity. Most importantly the multifunction relays significantly improve the availability, and therefore, reliability of a complete power management system. As more functionality is added to protective relays, fewer devices are necessary to accomplish automation and protection-related tasks in power plants and substations.

A single, modern protective relay will replace all of the following devices:

  • Single-function protective relays: 50, 51, 67, 27, 59, etc.
  • Self monitor.
  • Digital fault recorder (oscillograph).
  • Sequential Events Recorder (SER).
  • Remote Terminal Unit (RTU).
  • Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).
  • Bay Controller Unit (BCU).
  • Power quality meter.
  • Non-revenue class meter.
  • Remote I/O modules.
  • CT and PT transducer .
  • Breaker failure devices.

Hence the opportunities to take advantage of improvements in electronic communication technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become apparent.

We have a unique capability to retrofit existing protection and therefore upgrade existing protection systems with the minimum possible intervention and without power shut down. Our capabilities include:

  • Evaluation of the existing protection schemes
  • Upgrade of existing protection & control schemes
  • CT/PT evaluation
  • Panel engineering, retrofit & upgrade plan
  • Auxiliary voltage (AC/DC) evaluation
  • Update Drawings.